Left a sample from this manuscript written on the bark of the Birch tree


Back to Table of Contents
Yasomitra (original owner) of Bower Manuscript
(first half 6th century)
(written in Xinjiang)

Taken from: Laufer, Bertold, Sino-Iranica: Chinese Contributions. to the History of Civilization in Ancient Iran
Is important medical work written by mostly Buddhist monks. Part of its content goes back to 350 AD. It was bought by Hamilton Bower.

In it the oldest reference to the Castor oil plant. The plant is originally from tropical Africa from where it spread to India and finally to China. It is not known if it spread over sea from east-Africa or over land out of Egypt or any other way.

In the manuscript its oil and root are pointed out as eranda, gandharva, rubugaka and vaksana. Other names are ruvu, ruvuka, citraka, gandharvahastaka, vyaghrapuccha (tiger-tail)