A page of the Mahaniddesa

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Sariputta: Mahaniddesa

(the first part of the Niddesa of the Khuddaka Nikaya) India (250 BC)


Taken from: A geographical introduction to South-East Asia; The Indian perspective  H. Sarkar

Trade and Trade Routes in Ancient India - Moti Chandra


Or, still more, when under the influence of desires

which dominate his soul in quest of pleasures he sails the great ocean,

either frozen or burning, being bitten by mosquitoes or stinging insects,

wind and sun, and serpents, and suffering from hunger and thirst, and

goes to Gumba, Takkola Takkasila, Kalamukha, Maranapara, Vesunga, Verapatha, Java, Tamali, Vanga, Flavaddhana, Suvannakufa, Suvannabhumi,Tambapanni, Suppara, Bharukachchha, Suratfah, Anganeka, Gangana (East African Coast), Paramagangana (East African Coast), Yona (Greece), Paramayona (Close to Greece), Aliasanda (Alexandria in Egypt), Marukantara, Ja(va)nnupatha, Ajapatha, Mendhapatha, Sankupatha, Chattapatha,,Vamsapatha, Sakunapatha Musikapatha Daripatha,and Vettadhara, and thus again he is tormented, much tormented.


Starting from Suppara up to Anganeka we have ports on the west side of India;

Starting from Ja(va)nnupatha we have tracks, roads overland: patha.  Ajapatha =Goat track; Mendhapatha = Ram track; Sankupatha = Spike path….

Gangana and Paramagangana are indicated as on the East Coast of Africa on the authority of Moti Chandra who calls them Zanzibar and Azania without adding any further arguments.