To the left the map showing the conquests of Mohammet Kasim
Taken from: www.infinityfoundation.com
The original transl. by Mirza Kalichbeg Fredunbeg
Elliot: The history of India
Translated into Persian from the original Arab and edited by Ali Kufi. The original got lost. The original must have been a near contemporary account of the conquest of Sindh by the Muslims 500 years earlier in personal diary style. Cac-namah is a historical romance telling the story of Cac, the Rajah of Alor, as a first part followed by the conquest of Sind by Muhammad b. Qasim al-Thaqafi in 92/710
This text is important because it is a translation of a lost book called : Minhaj al-din wa-l-mulk from AD 710. It proves that at that time Africans were common in Sind on both sites (Hindu -Muslim) and that trade relations (African gold is mentioned on both sites) existed between this area and East-Africa. Abyssinians is a name in India commonly used for all East-African peoples.
A possible explanation to the fact that Africans and African gold were common in the area can be that the town of Debal was situated in this area. See note on Debal
Ali son of Muhammad Kufi, originally of Kufah (in Iraq), but subsequently a resident of Uch, in 613 A.H. (1216 A.D.).
An account of the rarities and presents sent from Sarandeb for the Khalif of the time.
It is related that the king of Sarandeb sent some curiosities and presents from the island of pearls, in a small fleet of boats by sea, for Hajjaj. He also sent some beautiful pearls and valuable jewels, as well as some Abyssinian male and female slaves, some pretty presents, and unparalleled rarities to the capital of the Khalifah. A number of Mussalman women also went with them with the object of visiting the Kabah, and seeing the capital city of the Khalifahs. When they arrived in the province of Kazrun, the boat was overtaken by a storm, and drifting from the right way, floated to the coast of Debal. Here a band of robbers, of the tribe of Nagamrah, who were residents of Debal, seized all the eight boats, took possession of the rich silken cloths they contained, captured the men and women, and carried away all the valuable property and jewels. The officers of the king of Sarandeb and the women informed them that, the property was intended for the Khalifah then regnant, but they paid no heed and said: If there is anyone to hear your complaint, and to help you, purchase your liberty. Then they all cried with one voice: O Hajjaj, O Hajjaj, hear us and help us. The woman who first uttered that cry belonged to the family of Bani Aziz. Wasat Asaadi states that when Debal was conquered he had occasion to see that woman, who was fair-skinned and of tall stature. The merchants (who were in the boats) were brought to Debal, and the people who had fled from the boats came to Hajjaj and informed him of what had happened. The Mussalman women, said they, are detained at Debal and they cry out: O Hajjaj, O Hajjaj, hear us, help us. When Hajjaj heard this, he said, as if in reply to the call of the women: Here am I, here am I. It is also stated in a tradition about Hajjaj that, when the Mussalman women were asked what they meant by calling Hajjaj to their help, they replied: We were in a sleeplike repose and we were disturbed in it, and so we called him to save us from the cruel and unmerciful people, who had confined us in captivity.
I also found a different translation of this part:
The king of Ceylon had sent to Hajjaj bin Yusuf Sakifi, the governor of the eastern provinces of the Caliphate, eight vessels filled with presents, Abyssinian slaves (note that abyssinians is here used for Africans in general), pilgrims, and the orphan daughters of some Muslim merchants who had died in his dominions. These ships were attacked and plundered by pirates off the coast of Sind. Hajjaj demanded reparations from Dahir, the king of Sind, but the latter expressed his inability to control the pirates or punish them. At this Hajjaj sent two expeditions against Debal (708 C.E.), the first under Ubaidulla and the other under Budail. Both were repulsed, their armies were routed and commanders killed. Deeply affected by these failures, Hajjaj fitted out a third and grandiose expedition. Astrological prediction and close relationship prompted him to confer the command of the campaign on his seventeen year old nephew and son-in-law Imaduddin Muhammad bin Qasim.
Muhammad Kasim calls his friends to himself.
The relaters of historical tales have stated, on the authority of Ramsiah Brahmin, that among the Musselmans there was a man called Shujaa Habashi (Abyssinian). His bravery was unbounded, and in the field of battle he had already worked miracles. He now came before Muhammad Kasim, and solemnly swore: I shall not eat or drink till I have faced Dahar and wounded his elephant. As long as my soul is in my body I shall fight on till I become a martyr. It was on Thursday, the 10th of the sacred month of Ramazan 93, that Dahar came forth seated on a white elephant and ready for battle. The Abyssinian who was on a black horse, then advanced and engaged in fight. Rai Dahar was informed that the man was coming to have a combat with him, and Rai Dahar turned towards him and drove his elephant at him. The Abyssinian too spurred his horse and brought it before the elephant. But the animal frightened at the sight of the elephant, tried to turn aside. The Abyssinian then immediately took off his turban, and tried the horse's eyes with it, and rushing on the elephant, wounded its trunk with a single blow. Rai Dahar placed a bifurcated arrow of the shape of scissors on his bow string, and with his usual firmness and skill discharged it at the Abyssinian, and it sheered off the Abyssinian's head from his neck, his body still remaining on the horse. Dahar then shouted out: I have smitten the Abyssinian and killed him. Dahar's warriors approached, and found the Abyssinian's body lying on the bow of his saddle. Thus the infidels made a rush on the Arabs from all sides, and fought so steadily and bravely that the army of Islam became irresolute, and their lines were broken up in great confusion. It was generally believed that the Arabs were defeated and put to flight, and men were struck dumb and overawed. Muhammad Kasim was then so much perplexed that he called out to his boy water-bearer:Give me a little water to drink. He drank water and then returned, and loudly shouted: Here am I, your commander Muhammad Kasim. Whither are you running away. Up with your shields and on to the attack, that the infidels may be killed and victory be ours.
Darohar contemplates treacherous measures against Jaisiya.
Darohar came to his palace, called two armed blacks, one of whom was named Kabir Bhadr and the other Bhaiu, and thus addressed them, I will invite Jaisiya to-day after breakfast, and entertain him; after taking dinner, I will drink wine in a private apartment, and play chess with him. You must both be ready with your arms. When I say shah mat (check-mate), do you draw your swords and kill him.
(the plot failed)
The Sammas come to receive him.
Muhammad Kasim then moved towards the tribes of the Samma. When he came near, they advanced to receive him, ringing bells, and beating drums and dancing. Muhammad Kasim said, What noise is this? The people told him that it was with them a customary ceremony, that when a new king comes among them they rejoice and receive him with frolics and merriment. Then Kharim, son of Umar, came to Muhammad Kasim and said, It is proper for us to adore and praise the Almighty God, because He has made these people submissive and obedient to us, and our injunctions and inhibitions are obeyed in this country. Kharim was an intelligent and ingenious man, faithful and honest. Muhammad Kasim laughed at his words, and said, You shall be made their chief, and he ordered them to dance and play before him. Kharim rewarded them with twenty dinars of African gold, and said: It is a regal privilege that joyful demonstrations should be made by them on the arrival of their prince, and gratitude thus be shown to the Almighty-may this blessing be long preserved to them
Multan (Punjab).... In the middle of it he built a temple fifty yards square, and he made a chamber in which he concealed forty copper jars each of which was filled with African gold dust. A treasure of three hundred and thirty mans of gold was buried there. Over it there is an idol made of red gold, and trees are planned round the reservoir. Muhammad Kasim (the Muslim conqueror of India) arose... went to the temple. He saw there an idol made of gold, and its two eye were bright red rubies... Muhammad Kasim ordered the idol to be taken up. Two hundred and thirty mans of gold were obtained, and forty jars filled with gold dust....
Orders from the Capital to Muhammad Kasim.
The next day, when the king of the heavenly host showed his face to the world from behind the veil of night, a dromedary rider with orders from the seat of government arrived. Muhammad, son of Ali Abu-l Hasan Hamadani says, that when Rai Dahir was killed, his two virgin daughters were seized in his palace, and Muhammad Kasim had sent them to Baghdad under the care of his negro slaves.